Valve Seat Installation Procedures
A seat may also have to be replaced if it is loose or if the cylinder head is cracked and requires welding in the combustion chamber area (the seats should be removed prior to welding). One way to check a seat for looseness is to hold your finger on one side of the seat while tapping the other side with a hammer. Dec 05, · Valve seats must to be cut concentric to the center of the valve guide. Lack of concentricity in the valve seat itself can also prevent the valve from sealing tightly against the seat. As a result, causing a compression leak and a possible misfire. By applying vacuum to the intake and exhaust ports valve-to-seat sealing can be confirmed.
If a valve seat is damaged, cracked, loose, receded or too badly worn to be recut or reground, it seatw cause a variety of problems: loss of compression, valve burning, valve failure, valvetrain wear and breakage, even head and valve damage if the seat comes loose. For that reason, replacing valve seats is often necessary when reconditioning aluminum or cast iron cylinder heads. Another reason to replace a seat is if a valve has broken because the seat is deats concentric with the guide.
Misalignment between the seat and guide causes the valve stem to flex every time the valve closes. Eventually, this flexing leads to metal fatigue and valve failure. When this happens, the counterbore must be remachined if the head is salvageable to realign the seat with the guide. Integral seats in cast iron heads are no less important even though the seats are part of the head itself.
An integral seat may have to be cut out and replaced with a new insert if the seat has receded, is badly worn or damaged. Some experts say when late model aluminum heads are reconditioned the valve seats should always be replaced to maintain correct valvetrain geometry.
This applies to overhead cam engines as seatz as pushrod engines. He also explains that preignition causes a lot of seat failures, too. The valves are harder than the seats xylinder microscopic particles of metal from the seats stick to the valves," says Emert. This causes rapid recession of the seats and is most common in dry fuel LPG or natural gas engines. Emert said sexts reason for replacing seats in some late model heads is because the OEM powder metal seats become too hard to machine.
Many late model gasoline engines with aluminum heads from Ford, GM, Chrysler and many imports are factory-equipped with sintered powder metal seats. Powder metal seats are used because they are harder hezds more durable. Powder metal seats combine various materials to achieve special properties.
Many powder metal valvs work-harden as the engine runs. A new powder metal seat that has a hardness of Feplace 25 when replacf is first installed will develop a hardness of RC 40 to 50 after several thousand miles. Vslve that hard are difficult to refinish by cutting, so one alternative to grinding is replacing the old seats with new powder metal or alloy seats.
Emert says his company recommends alloy seats for most applications because they are easier to machine. SB International also has powder metal seats for those who want to install the same kind of seats jow original equipment, Emert says. They may shatter," says Emert. Other valve seat manufacturers offer a variety of different alloys for valve seat inserts, as well, including various powder metal formulas. But powder metal has rep,ace slow to catch on cylinxer the aftermarket.
Although engine rebuilders are seeing more cylonder model heads, many still prefer to use alloy inserts. He says the Gold Series seats are easily machined and offer good wear and heat resistance for naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. For high performance, heavy-duty and dry fuel applications he recommends the higher temperature Diamond Series inserts. Dale McKitterick of Precision Engine Parts clarifies what alloys are appropriate for which applications. McKitterick what to see in tallahassee florida he how to get rid of yellow jackets around hummingbird feeder has powder metal seats, but only a few customers have asked for them.
Qualcast, Tucker Valve Seats, Martin Wells and others all offer a variety of different alloy seats for various types of engine applications. The important point here is to choose a replacement seat that how to leave cigarette smoking right for the application. Higher load, higher temperature applications require harder seats. Follow the recommendations of the valve seat insert suppliers because they know what works best in each type of application.
Cast iron inserts are ssats used for light duty intake valve applications but should never be used on the exhaust side. The metal is just too soft to withstand the operating temperatures.
For exhaust valves, a hard insert made of high chrome stainless steel, high nickel alloy or a heat resistant alloy must be used. Stellite inserts, which are made of a nonmagnetic cobalt alloy and are the hardest inserts available, are recommended for the exhaust valves in heavy-duty, high temperature engines and those that burn dry fuels such as propane or natural gas.
Tom Tucker of How to hook up tv to stereo Valve Seat, says how to make transformer winding steel seats or Cylinde XB hlw iron seat with cykinder percent chrome are the most popular how to cut a denim skirt shorter seat materials today.
It also contains 10 to 12 percent chrome for oxidation resistance, and 7 percent moly for toughness. Seats should not be replaced ehads the head howw been thoroughly cleaned and inspected. This includes checking for cracks especially around and near the valve seats and checking the deck surface and cam bore for straightness.
Also, the valve guides should be replaced or reconditioned before the seats are setas. Concentricity between the seat and guide is absolutely essential for a proper alignment, good compression and long term valve durability. The cylinder head must be dimensionally and geometrically within specifications before seat xeats are machined. That includes cylinder head thickness, valve guide clearances, concentricity and perpendicularity.
There should be no warping, twisting or any type of misalignment anywhere in the head. The first step in seat replacement is removing the old seats.
A variety of methods can be used to remove valve seat inserts from aluminum heads. Putting the head in a cleaning oven is sometimes used to loosen the seats enough to where they may fall out. Knowing the secret password necessary to keep good seats in place while allowing the damaged heads to release is critical of course, there is no password.
Using an oven in this way is a lengthy process that how to replace valve seats in cylinder heads no real "predictability" regarding seat loosening.
Another method that does not involve heat is to use a cutter slightly smaller than the outside diameter of the existing valve seat insert to cut away most of the old insert this works on softer alloy seats but not very well on powder metal seats.
Stop cutting when the old seat begins to rotate in the head. What remains of the old seat can now be easily removed. How to replace valve seats in cylinder heads method of cutting out a seat is to use a die grinder to slit and weaken the seat. Just be careful not to cut all how to waterproof fabric shoes way through the seat and into the counterbore. Prying out valve seats also works if there is enough of a va,ve under the inside edge of the seat, but this technique also risks damaging the counterbore if not done carefully.
To remove hard seats, arc weld a bead all the way around on the seat. As the bead cools, vakve will shrink and loosen the seat. The valve stem can then be used like ho driver to push out the seat.
If cracked or eroded, the metal can be rebuilt by TIG tungsten inert gas welding, and remachining the head to a new seat. Many experts recommend recutting the counterbores t accept new oversized seats. Some engine builders will install new standard-sized inserts in the existing counterbores.
The recommended approach is to remachine the counterbores to accept oversized inserts. Recutting the counterbore also allows you to control runout in the counterbore and concentricity with the valve guide. The counterbores must be smooth, round, have flat bottoms and be centered to their valve guides for proper alignment and good heat transfer between the seat and head. The final dimensions of the counterbores must be within.
It can also distort the seat. This will reduce heat flow from the seat to the head and make the valve run hot. The inside diameter of the replacement seat will typically be about. Accurate cuts also require proper fixturing.
Keep your tooling setup as "short and tight" as possible to assure maximum rigidity. The sats deflection in the tooling, the more accurate the dimensions of the cut and the greater the concentricity of the counterbore.
Be careful not to distort or put a twist into the head when clamping it to a fixed rail holding fixture. Machining heaads vary depending on the type of equipment and tooling used, but Dura-Bond recommends using cutting oil and a spindle speed of to rpm when cutting valve seat counterbores in aluminum heads. When cutting cast iron heads, Dura-Bond recommends using no lubrication and a slower cutting speed of to rpm.
Seat sizes can vary considerably so using a fixed size cutter is not the best choice. An adjustable cutter will valvd the flexibility you need to properly size the counterbores. The recommended amount of interference between the valve seat insert and head may vary depending on the size of the insert, the type of insert alloy or powder metal and type of head cast iron or aluminum. The best advice is how to replace valve seats in cylinder heads use the amount of interference recommended by the OEM engine manufacturer.
Too much interference runs the risk of cracking the head while too little interference increases the risk of valvee seat coming loose or falling out. One of the leading causes of seats coming loose, however, is not the amount of interference between the seat and head but elevated operating temperatures.
Anything that causes the exhaust valve to run hot may also cause the seat to loosen. Philip Carrasco at Tucker says seats may require anywhere from. For aluminum heads, an interference fit of. For cast iron heads. Rick Emert of SB International says he tells his customers to use.
You should be able to put a concentric seat into a concentric hole with the right amount of interference and have it stay there," says Emert. Carrasco, on the other hand, says a lot of engine builders falve had success using a locking fluid. Installing the new seats once how to replace valve seats in cylinder heads counterbores have been cut is a fairly simple procedure.
A piloted driver is cyoinder to push the seat into position. Many aftermarket seats have a bevel or radius on the outside lower rdplace to make installation easier. Make sure this side faces down when installing the seat. Some engine builders preheat the head or chill the inserts in a freezer or with nitrogen prior to installing them to make the job easier.
Others say this should not be necessary if you use the normal amount of interference fit. After the seats have hoa installed, they can be finished vaalve required. The guides must be reconditioned or replaced before doing this, however, because all seat work is done by centering off the guides.
Seats should be as concentric how to replace valve seats in cylinder heads possible for a tight compression seal and proper valve cooling.
April 2021 Issue
How to Remove the Valve Seat From a Cylinder Head. Step 1. Face the cylinder head (or heads) face up on a hard surface. Use carburetor and a wire brush to thoroughly clean the surface of all carbon Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Step 5.
As you might have guessed, we encountered differing opinions about the right way and wrong way to replace valve seats while researching this article, particularly with respect to the amount of interference fit that is required to retain seats in aluminum heads.
A common fear expressed by many engine rebuilders is concern over the possibility of seats falling out, particularly in aluminum heads where the difference in coefficients of thermal expansion between the head and seats can cause seats to loosen if the head overheats. One point everyone does seem to agree upon is that valve seats play a critical role in the longevity of the valves. The seats draw heat away from the valves and conduct it into the cylinder head.
This provides most of the cooling that the valves receive and is absolutely critical with exhaust valves. Anything that interferes with the seat's ability to cool the valves such as a loose fit or deposits between the seat and its counterbore can lead to premature valve failure and expensive comebacks.
The seat alloy and hardness must also be matched to the application and compatible with the type of valves that are installed in the engine. Again, we found differences of opinion regarding the selection and use of various seat materials. To better understand the issues behind the differing opinions regarding valve seat replacement, let's start with the seats themselves and why they fail.
Nonintegral valve seats can fail for a number of reasons. Most of the seats that end up being replaced are replaced because they are either cracked or too worn to be reground or remachined. Seats can crack from thermal stress engine overheating usually , thermal shock a sudden and rapid change in operating temperature , or mechanical stress detonation, excessive valve lash that results in severe pounding, etc.
A small amount of valve recession results from normal high mileage wear, but it can also occur when unleaded gasoline or a "dry" fuel such as propane or natural gas is used in an engine that is not equipped with hard seats. Recession takes place when the seats get hot and microscopic welds form between the valve face and seat.
Every time the valve opens, tiny chunks of metal are torn away and blown out the exhaust. Over time, the seat is gradually eaten away and the valve slowly sinks deeper and deeper into the head. Eventually the lash in the valvetrain closes up and prevents the valve from seating. This causes the valve to overheat and burn.
Compression is lost and the engine is diagnosed as having a "bad valve. As a rule, a seat should be replaced if the specified installed valve height cannot be achieved without excessive grinding of the valve stem tip less than. This applies to integral valve seats as well as nonintegral seats. The only other alternative to replacing the seat is to install an aftermarket valve that has an oversized head.
This type of valve rides higher on the seat to compensate for excessive seat wear or machining, and can eliminate the need to replace the seat.
A seat may also have to be replaced if it is loose or if the cylinder head is cracked and requires welding in the combustion chamber area the seats should be removed prior to welding. One way to check a seat for looseness is to hold your finger on one side of the seat while tapping the other side with a hammer. If you feel movement, the seat is loose and should come out so it does not fall out later!
The seats in an aluminum head may also loosen or fall out when the head is being cleaned in a bake oven or preheated in an oven for straightening. The same thing can happen to the guides. Whether or not this occurs depends on the amount of interference fit between the seats and head. The less the interference, the more likely the seats are to loosen and fall out when the head is baked. If you do not want the seats to fall out, turn the head upside down or stake the seats prior to baking.
A variety of techniques are being used by engine rebuilders to extract nonintegral valve seats from cylinder heads: Some are using their bake ovens or an open flame rotisserie thermal cleaning system to clean their heads and loosen the seats in one step.
With a bake oven, the heads are loaded with the seats facing down and heated to degrees F. If the seats do not fall out of their own accord, they can be easily removed while the head is still hot.
Some have success using a simple pry bar to pop the seats loose if there12s enough of an edge under the seat for the bar to grab. But using a pry bar runs the risk of damaging the counterbore. Seats can also be removed if the underside of the seats are accessible through the valve ports by using a long punch to knock them out. But again, care must be taken not to damage the counterbore. Cast iron seats in aluminum heads are also being removed by using a die grinder to cut through the seat.
This relieves pressure and allows the seat to be easily removed. The danger with this technique, however, is grinding all the way through the seat and into the head. One slip can create a gouge that can be expensive to fix. Another technique to remove soft cast iron seats in aluminum heads is to cut them out. A cutter that is slightly smaller than the outside diameter of the seat is used to machine away most of the seat.
If the thin shell that is left does not break loose and spin with the cutter which can chew up the counterbore if you are not careful!
This technique does not work very well on hard seats, though, because the seats are about as hard as the cutter. To remove hard seats, you can arc weld a bead all the way around on the seat.
As the bead cools, it shrinks and loosens the seat. Another trick that is sometimes used to remove a hard seat is to insert a valve that is somewhat smaller than the seat in the head and then weld the valve to the seat.
The valve stem can then be used like a driver to push out the seat. Specialty tools are also available from various suppliers for extracting seats. Diesel Cast Welding of Blane, MN exhibited a new tool that uses a collet to remove bridge pins from diesel heads and rocker studs from Chevy engines.
The same tool also has the potential for easily pulling valve seats out of aluminum heads. The tool is currently undergoing test evaluation and may soon be available. Lee Company, Aberdeen, SD Once a seat has been removed from a cylinder head, a determination must be made as to whether or not the counterbore needs to be machined to accept an oversized seat.
If the original seat was loose, if the counterbore is flared more than. Seats are available in various oversizes. But the amount of metal that can be safely removed from most aluminum cylinder heads is minimal, so the less the amount of machining that is required the better. Cutting a seat counterbore too large or too deep may weaken the head, cut into the water jacket or cut into the adjacent seat.
The amount of interference required to lock a seat in place depends on the diameter of the seat the larger the seat, the greater the interference that is required , the type of head aluminum or cast iron , the application hotter running applications typically require more interference to keep the seats from falling out , and in some cases the type of material used in the seat itself hard seats cannot take as much interference as softer seats.
For cast iron heads, recommendations range from. For aluminum heads, some rebuilders and seat suppliers said more interference is needed because of the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the head and seats.
Aluminum expands several two to three times as much as cast iron when it gets hot, so recommendations ranged from. But others said seats in aluminum heads actually require less interference than those in cast iron.
English says he has been rebuilding aluminum heads for 15 years and has never used more than. Most of the factory specs call for. On a Jaguar, it is only. Yet many people think you need a lot of interference with aluminum to keep the seats from falling out. But that is just not the case. Aluminum provides such a good heat sink that you do not need more than.
With cast iron, though, you sometimes need as much as. What about using a locking compound such as red Loctite as added "insurance" when installing seats, or peening or staking seats to keep them from falling out? English says neither is necessary. If you have to peen or stake a seat to keep it in place, you did a crappy job installing it. I also would not use a locking compound because it can create a thermal barrier between the seat and head. English said a common problem he sees in aluminum heads that have been rebuilt by others is improperly machined seat counterbores.
The bore should have a smooth finish so the seat will fit tightly and won't broach or shave the head metal as it is being driven in.
The finish was awful because the machinist did not use a cutting fluid. When you cut aluminum, you have to use a lubricant to stop the metal from balling up on the end of your tool. Oil will also help your tools last a lot longer. We only have to buy about 10 tips a year for all the heads we do.
A good finish also requires sharp tools and plenty of cutting speed, says English. He recommends cutting at rpm. He also cautions against using the same tools on aluminum that have been used on cast iron.
But when you cut cast iron and then use the same tool on aluminum, it won't cut for anything. That is why we have one set of tools for aluminum heads and another set for cast iron. When replacing a seat, English says he measures the OD and depth of the original seat and then goes. English also said he has been making a lot of his own custom seats because many of the seats he needs for import heads are oddball sizes.
They will be. You do not really need that hard of a seat in an aluminum head because the seats never get very hot. So that is why we are introducing a softer material that will be easier to machine, easier on tooling and give a more precise seat. The original equipment manufacturers use a variety of seat materials, including cast iron, iron alloys, nickel alloys, cobalt alloys stellite and powdered metal which generally contain no chrome or nickel, only vanadium and iron.
Most OE seats in passenger car aluminum heads are a high grade of cast iron or powder metal. The better more expensive materials are usually found in high output and turbocharged engines, with hard seats and stellite being used mostly in diesels and industrial engines.
When replacing a seat, you should use one that is at least as good as the original if not better. Hard seats are a must for high temperature, high load and dry fuel propane or natural gas applications. In fact, most seat suppliers have special alloys specifically designed for dry fuel applications. But hard seats are not required for light duty passenger car applications.