Causes of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
Jun 16, · There are specific causes of antibiotic resistance, particularly factors that contribute to the emergence and propagation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 1. Misuse and Abuse of Medications. Remember that resistance can occur naturally, and some resistant bacteria strains predate the use of antibiotics in both healthcare and commercial or industrial settings. Inappropriate Use. Selection of resistant microorganisms is exacerbated by inappropriate use of antimicrobials. Sometimes healthcare providers will prescribe antimicrobials inappropriately, wishing to placate an insistent patient who has a viral infection or an as-yet undiagnosed condition.
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are specific strains of bacterial species that have developed resistance from the effects of antibacterial agents due to continued exposure.
Take note that antibiotic resistance is a subset of antimicrobial resistance. Nonetheless, the rise of several bacterial strains impervious to antibiotic therapies and the ongoing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance have now become a global public health concern. Infections from resistant microbes are hard to treat because they either require the development of new antimicrobial agents or administration of existing ones at higher doses. Evolution is at the center of antibiotic resistance.
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria demonstrates the evolutionary processes that take place during antimicrobial exposure. Continued exposure to antibiotic essentially allows a specific bacterium to adapt and eventually evolve to the point in which it is no longer harmed by the antibacterial compound. To be more specific, through the process of natural selection and evolutionary pressure, antimicrobial therapy may select for bacterial strains with enhanced capacity to survive the particular type of antibiotic in use.
Under the right conditions, these resistant strains could propagate within the host or spread to the outside environment, such as in the case of hospital-acquired infections.
Different bacteria have different evolutionary mechanisms by which they develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Some species may produce new resistant strains under low doses or concentrations of antibiotics.
Other species may produce resistant strains under high concentrations while others response to high albeit abrupt concentrations. Of course, it is also important to mention that resistance can occur naturally.
Some bacterial strains have developed antibiotic resistance as a defense mechanism while in their natural habitats. Penicillin-resistant bacteria existed before the discovery and utilization of penicillin treatment. There are also other bacterial species with preexistent resistance to streptomycin.
There are specific causes of antibiotic resistance, particularly factors that contribute to the emergence and propagation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Remember that what causes antibiotic resistant bacteria to develop can occur what causes antibiotic resistant bacteria to develop, and some resistant bacteria strains predate the use of antibiotics in both healthcare and commercial or industrial settings. However, the widespread consumption of these antibiotics since the s due to their clinical significance has promoted the emergence of more resistant bacteria.
The decrease in production costs and uncontrolled sales have increased the consumption of antibiotics. Prior to the recommendations from the World Health Organization and strict regulations from government agencies in different countries, antibiotics can be obtained without a prescription and a proper dosage guideline, thus enabling the misuse and abuse of these medicines by the local population.
Forms of misuse and abuse include self-medication, prescription by physicians without proper dosage and consideration of patient history, failure to complete the entire course of the therapy, and inappropriate treatment due to an incorrect diagnosis. Marino noted that the first rule of antibiotics is to try not to use them, and the second rule is to try not to use too many of them.
A large body of studies has established the use of antibiotics in agriculture and livestock as a contributing factor to the emergence and propagation of resistant bacteria.
The WHO specifically noted that the use of antimicrobial agents is prevalent in a production-intensive setting. In addition, in some countries, the total amount of antibiotics used in animals is four times greater than the amount used in humans. Most countries also use antibiotics not how to make slender man costume treat diseases in animals but to promote growth and prevention of diseases.
Of course, researchers Quizhi Chang et al. However, they identified three potential mechanisms by which the use of antibiotics in agriculture and livestock could affect the human population. These mechanisms include direct infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria from an animal source, breaches in the species barrier followed by sustained transmission in humans of resistant strains arising in livestock, and transfer of genes that confer bacteria with resistance from agriculture to human pathogens.
Aside from use in a clinical or healthcare setting, what causes antibiotic resistant bacteria to develop agents remain in key ingredients in a number of consumer products ranging from personal hygiene items such as skin care products to cleaning and home maintenance products such as laundry detergents, dishwashing soaps, and disinfectant sprays, among others.
The U. Food and Drug Administration banned 19 antibacterial additives such as triclosan and triclocarban commonly used in antimicrobial soaps and other personal hygiene products. Aside from the fact that these ingredients do not demonstrate necessity and long-term safety, they increase the risk of promoting bacterial resistance. A study by Corey Westfall et al. For example, E. Furthermore, triclosan protects the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA strain from the last-resort medication called vancomycin.
The magazine Were what does it mean Scientist published an article exploring how waste products from the operations of pharmaceutical companies in India are driving the rise of antibiotic resistance in the local population. It explained that these companies are dumping wastewater containing high concentrations of antibiotics in lakes and streams, thus possibly becoming breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
A report by the Changing Markets Foundation and investigative agency Ecostorm revealed that 16 of the 35 manufacturing sites in India were harboring bacteria resistant to antibiotics. In addition, from the 16 sites, four sites were harboring bacteria resistant to the three major classes of antibiotics. The report also noted that China is also home to pharmaceutical companies with questionable wastewater management.
Researchers D. Larsson and J. Fick recommended the need for transparency how to keep a band together the production chain of pharmaceutical products, as well as changes in local and international regulations. Consumers should also be able to make informed decisions by providing readily available information regarding the origin of drugs and the environmental impacts of their production.
Hospitals and other healthcare what causes antibiotic resistant bacteria to develop are home to transmittable diseases.
Researchers have investigated the different facets of hospital-acquired infections or HAIs. Some studies have focused on specific types of HAIs that are resistant how many days notice to evict a tenant in ontario conventional antimicrobial treatments, including antibiotic-resistant, hospital-acquired bacterial infections.
A historical review of prior studies by A. Revelas revealed that bacterial infections are common in most HAI incidents. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common cause of HAIs from to During the late s to early s, HAIs caused by gram-negative bacteria emerged. Incidents of hospital-acquired bacterial infections have become more disconcerting due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistance bacteria during the s.
Weinstein explained the rise of resistant bacteria in the healthcare setting stems from failures of hospital hygiene or poor practices in maintaining a sterile environment, selective pressures created by overuse of antibiotics, and mobile genetic elements that can encode bacterial resistance mechanisms.
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Feb 10, · Antibiotics save lives but any time antibiotics are used, they can cause side effects and lead to antibiotic resistance. Since the s, antibiotics have greatly reduced illness and death from infectious diseases. However, as we use the drugs, germs develop defense strategies against them. This makes the drugs less effective. Antimicrobials Treat Infections Caused by Microbes. Microbes are . Bacteria develop chloramphenicol resistance by using the activity of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) to modify chloramphenicol. Examples of Different Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance. 1) Antibiotic degradation by ?-lactamases. 2) Antibiotic modification by chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) and amino-phospotransferase (APH). Mar 04, · Antibiotics do not work against bacteria that have become resistant. When antibiotics are not used correctly, they may not kill all of the bacteria. The bacteria that an antibiotic does not kill can grow stronger. The antibiotic may not be able to kill the new germs. Germs can become resistant when the wrong type, wrong dose, or wrong treatment length of antibiotic is used. Germs can also become resistant .
Antibiotics save lives but any time antibiotics are used, they can cause side effects and lead to antibiotic resistance. Since the s, antibiotics have greatly reduced illness and death from infectious diseases. However, as we use the drugs, germs develop defense strategies against them.
This makes the drugs less effective. Microbes are very small living organisms, like bacteria. Most microbes are harmless and even helpful to humans, but some can cause infections and disease. Drugs used to treat these infections are called antimicrobials. The most commonly known antimicrobial is antibiotics, which kill or stop the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics fight germs bacteria and fungi. But germs fight back and find new ways to survive. Their defense strategies are called resistance mechanisms.
Bacteria develop resistance mechanisms by using instructions provided by their DNA. Often, resistance genes are found within plasmids, small pieces of DNA that carry genetic instructions from one germ to another.
This means that some bacteria can share their DNA and make other germs become resistant. Example: Gram-negative bacteria have an outer layer membrane that protects them from their environment. These bacteria can use this membrane to selectively keep antibiotic drugs from entering. Example: Some Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria can produce pumps to get rid of several different important antibiotic drugs, including fluoroquinolones, beta-lactams, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim. Example: Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria produce enzymes called carbapenemases, which break down carbapenem drugs and most other beta-lactam drugs.
Example: Some Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can bypass the drug effects of trimethoprim. Example: Escherichia coli bacteria with the mcr- 1 gene can add a compound to the outside of the cell wall so that the drug colistin cannot latch onto it.
Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. How Antibiotic Resistance Happens. Minus Related Pages. On This Page. Some help us. Some make people, crops, or animals sick. Some of those germs are resistant to antibiotics. Antibiotics kill germs that cause infections. But antibiotic-resistant germs find ways to survive. Antibiotics also kill good bacteria that protect the body from infection.
Antibiotic-resistant germs can multiply. Some resistant germs can also give their resistance directly to other germs. Once antibiotic resistance emerges, it can spread into new settings and between countries. Top of Page. Germ Defense Strategies Antibiotics fight germs bacteria and fungi. Examples of Defense Strategies for Germs Germs can use defense strategies to resist the effects of antibiotics. Here are a few examples.
Resistance Mechanisms Defense Strategies Resistance Mechanisms Defense Strategies Description Restrict access of the antibiotic Germs restrict access by changing the entryways or limiting the number of entryways. Get rid of the antibiotic Germs get rid of antibiotics using pumps in their cell walls to remove antibiotic drugs that enter the cell. Change or destroy the antibiotic Germs change or destroy the antibiotics with enzymes, proteins that break down the drug.
Example: Some Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can bypass the drug effects of trimethoprim Change the targets for the antibiotic Many antibiotic drugs are designed to single out and destroy specific parts or targets of a bacterium.
CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website. Cancel Continue. Germs restrict access by changing the entryways or limiting the number of entryways.
Germs get rid of antibiotics using pumps in their cell walls to remove antibiotic drugs that enter the cell. Germs change or destroy the antibiotics with enzymes, proteins that break down the drug. Many antibiotic drugs are designed to single out and destroy specific parts or targets of a bacterium.