Territorial evolution of Poland
Dec 29, · Before existed Dutch of Warsaw, which was depended on Napoleon. After Territory of Poland was occupied by Russia, Germany and Austria. jessica_dianka. 1 decade ago. I . Mar 11, · The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for years. The partitions were conducted by the Habsburg Monarchy, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire, which divided up the .
Asked by Wiki User. It is is not under Europe or controlled by it. Poland is an independent country in the continent of Europe. Congress Poland was created in Yes it was. It would be different then as different forces and countries controlled different parts of Europe then andmany boders have changed since.
Luke P. Poland was born on Poland has never controlled Europe. Poland is a country. Switzerland has not fought in a war since Poland is a country and polands continent is Europe. In the end he controlled many countries, starting in Germany he took Austria peacefully, then took Czechoslovakia, Poland etc. No in Poland is a Polish speaking country. Poland has never left Poland. Poland is a country in Europe. No, Poland is a democratic country.
I would have to say Poland. On a percentage basis, Poland lost the greatest population and after the war, Poland was controlled by the Soviet Union. Germany and Japan at least were rebuilt and had a measure of independence. The biggest winner of course was the United States. Ask Question.
See Answer. Top Answer. Wiki User Answered Related Questions. What country controlled most of Poland in ? Poland is mosh Europe? When was Congress Poland created? Was Poland in Europe in ? What country controlled western Europe by ? What was Poland controlled by? What country did Poland belong to in ? When was Luke P. Poland born? When how to fix warped door Poland gain control of Europe?
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Poland is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the lovesdatme.com total area of Poland is , square kilometres (, sq mi), making it the 69th largest country in the world and the ninth largest in Europe.
Congress Poland  [ citation needed ] or Russian Poland [ citation needed ] , formally known as the Kingdom of Poland ,  [ citation needed ] was a polity created in by the Congress of Vienna as a semi-autonomous Polish state and successor to Napoleon 's short-lived Duchy of Warsaw.
Following the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland ceased to exist as an independent state for years. The territory, with its native population, was split between the Habsburg Monarchy , the Kingdom of Prussia , and the Russian Empire. The area incorporated into Prussia and subsequently the German Empire had little autonomy and was merely a province — the Province of Posen.
The Kingdom of Poland was theoretically granted considerable political autonomy by the liberal constitution. However, its rulers, the Russian Emperors , generally disregarded any restrictions on their power.
It was, therefore, little more than a puppet state in a personal union with the Russian Empire. The capital was located in Warsaw , which towards the beginning of the 20th century became the Russian Empire's third-largest city after St. Petersburg and Moscow. The moderately multicultural population of Congress Poland was estimated at 9,, inhabitants in The predominant religion was Roman Catholicism and the official language used within the state was Polish until the failed January Uprising when Russian became co-official as a consequence.
Yiddish and German were widely spoken by their native speakers. The Congress Kingdom of Poland [ citation needed ] was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw , a French client state, at the Congress of Vienna in when the great powers reorganized Europe following the Napoleonic wars.
The Kingdom was created on part of the Polish territory that had been partitioned between Russia , Austria and Prussia , and then transformed into the Duchy of Warsaw by Napoleon Bonaparte in After Napoleon's defeat, the fate of the Duchy of Warsaw was dependent on Russia.
Prussia insisted on the Duchy being completely eliminated; after Russian troops reached Paris in , Tsar Alexander I intended to annex the Duchy and parts of Lithuanian-Belarusian lands which were historically in the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Following the Congress, Russia gained a larger share of Poland with Warsaw and, after crushing an insurrection in , the Congress Kingdom's autonomy was abolished. Poles faced confiscation of property, deportation, forced military service, and the closure of their own universities. Following the defeat of the November Uprising its separate institutions and administrative arrangements were abolished as part of increased Russification to be more closely integrated with the Russian Empire.
However, even after this formalized annexation, the territory retained some degree of distinctiveness and continued to be referred to informally as Congress Poland until the Russian rule there ended as a result of the advance by the armies of the Central Powers in during World War I.
Originally, the Kingdom had an area of roughly , km 2 and a population of approximately 3. The new state would be one of the smallest Polish states ever, smaller than the preceding Duchy of Warsaw and much smaller than the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth which had a population of over 10 million and an area of 1 million km 2.
The majority of ethnic Poles within the Russian Empire lived in the Congress Kingdom [ citation needed ] , although some areas outside its borders were also inhabited by strong Polish and Roman Catholic minorities. The Kingdom of Poland largely re-emerged as a result of the efforts of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski ,  a Pole who aimed to resurrect the Polish state in alliance with Russia. The Kingdom of Poland was one of the few contemporary constitutional monarchies in Europe, with the Emperor of Russia serving as the self-proclaimed King of Poland.
Theoretically, the Polish Kingdom in its form was a semi-autonomous state in personal union with Russia through the rule of the Russian Emperor. The state possessed the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland , one of the most liberal in 19th century Europe,  a Sejm parliament responsible to the King capable of voting laws, an independent army , currency , budget , penal code and a customs boundary separating it from the rest of Russian lands. Poland also had democratic traditions Golden Liberty and the Polish nobility deeply valued personal freedom.
In reality, the Kings had absolute power and the formal title of Autocrat , and wanted no restrictions on their rule. All opposition to the Emperor of Russia was suppressed and the law was disregarded at will by Russian officials. However, in time the situation changed and he granted the viceroy, Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich , almost dictatorial powers. In , Alexander I abolished freedom of the press and introduced preventive censorship.
Resistance to Russian control began in the s. Alexander I's successor, Nicholas I was crowned King of Poland on 24 May in Warsaw, but he declined to swear to abide by the Constitution and continued to limit the independence of the Polish kingdom. Nicholas' rule promoted the idea of Official Nationality, consisting of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality. In relation to Poles, those ideas meant assimilation: turning them into loyal Orthodox Russians. The rule of Nicholas also meant the end of political traditions in Poland; democratic institutions were removed, an appointed—rather than elected—centralized administration was put in place, and efforts were made to change the relations between the state and the individual.
All of this led to discontent and resistance among the Polish population. Nicholas reacted by sending Russian troops into Poland, resulting in the November Uprising. Following an month military campaign, the Kingdom of Poland lost its semi-independence and was integrated much more closely with the Russian Empire.
This was formalized through the issuing of the Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland by the Emperor in , which abolished the constitution, army and legislative assembly. Over the next 30 years, a series of measures bound Congress Poland ever more closely to Russia. In the January Uprising broke out but lasted only two years before being crushed. As a direct result, any remaining separate status of the kingdom was removed and the political entity was directly incorporated into the Russian Empire.
The Emperor of Russia was the official head of state, considered the King of Poland , with the local government headed by the Viceroy of the Kingdom of Poland Polish : Namiestnik , Council of State and Administrative Council , in addition to the Sejm. In theory, Congress Poland possessed one of the most liberal governments of the time in Europe ,  but in practice, the area was a puppet state of the Russian Empire. The liberal provisions of the constitution, and the scope of the autonomy, were often disregarded by the Russian officials.
Polish remained an official language until the mids when it was replaced by Russian. The office of " Namiestnik " was introduced in Poland by the constitution of Congress Poland. The Viceroy supervised the entire public administration and, in the monarch's absence, chaired the Council of State , as well as the Administrative Council.
He could veto the councils' decisions; other than that, his decisions had to be countersigned by the appropriate government minister. The Viceroy exercised broad powers and could nominate candidates for most senior government posts ministers, senators , judges of the High Tribunal, councilors of state, referendaries , bishops , and archbishops. He had no competence in the realms of finances and foreign policy; his military competence varied.
The office of "namiestnik" or Viceroy was never abolished; however, after the January Uprising it disappeared. The last "namiestnik" was Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg , who served from to his death in The governor-general answered directly to the Emperor and exercised much broader powers than had the "namiestnik". In particular, he controlled all the military forces in the region and oversaw the judicial systems he could impose death sentences without trial.
He could also issue " declarations with the force of law," which could alter existing laws. Introduced by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland in , it was composed of 5 ministers, special nominees of the King and the Viceroy of the Kingdom of Poland.
The Council executed the King's will and ruled in the cases outside the minister's competence and prepared projects for the Council of State. Immediately after its creation in , the Kingdom of Poland was divided into departments , a relic from the times of the French-dominated Duchy of Warsaw.
On 7 March , in the aftermath of the November Uprising earlier that decade, the administrative division was reformed again, bringing Congress Poland closer to the structure of the Russian Empire , with the introduction of guberniyas governorate , Polish spelling gubernia. In several governorates were merged with others, and some others renamed; five governorates remained. In , following the failure of the January Uprising , further reforms were instituted which were designed to bring the administrative structure of Poland now de facto the Vistulan Country closer to that of the Russian Empire.
It divided larger governorates into smaller ones, introduced the gmina a new lower-level entity , and restructured the existing five governorates into The reform created a new governorate — Kholm Governorate — from parts of the Sedlets and Lublin Governorates. Despite the fact that the economic situation varied at times, Congress Poland was one of the largest economies in the world.
The beginnings were difficult due to floods and intense diplomatic relationship with Prussia. The first Polish steam mill was built in in Warsaw - Solec ; the first textile machine was installed in The government was also encouraging foreign specialists, mostly Germans , to upkeep larger establishments, or to undertake production.
With the abolition of border customs in and further economic growth, Polish cities were gaining wealth and importance. Most notably, Warsaw , being associated with the construction of railway lines and bridges, gained priority in the entire Russian market. Although the economic and industrial progress occurred rapidly, most of the farms, called folwarks , chose to rely on serfs and paid workforce. Only a few have experimented by obtaining proper machinery and plowing equipment from England.
The use of iron cutters and plows was also favoured among the farmers. During the January Uprising the occupying authorities sought to deprive peasant insurgents of their popularity among landed gentry. The noblemen and landowners were, on the other hand, provided with more privileges, rights and even financial support in the form of bribery. The aim of this was to weaken their support for the rebellion against the Russian Empire.
Congress Poland was the largest supplier of zinc in Europe. The development of the zinc industry took place at the beginning of the 19th century. It was mostly caused by the significant increase of demand for zinc mainly in industrialized countries of Western Europe. It was the only firm in the Russian Empire which crafted and produced cameras , telescopes , objectives and stereoscopes.
Following the outbreak of World War I the factory was moved to St. Demographic composition in , by language: . They disagree however on whether the Kingdom of Poland, colloquially known as Congress Poland, as a state, was officially replaced by Vistula Land Privislinsky Krai , a province of the Russian Empire, as many sources still use the term Congress Poland for the post period.
The sources are also unclear as to when Congress Poland or Vistula land officially ended; some argue that it ended when the German and Austro-Hungarian occupying authorities assumed control of the area during World War I ; others, that it ended with the creation of the Kingdom of Poland in ; finally, some argue that it ended only with the creation of the independent Republic of Poland in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the Polish legislature, see Parliament of Poland. Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Naval Ensign. Map of Congress Poland, circa , following the Congress of Vienna. The Russian Empire is shown in light green. Personal union with the Russian Empire Real union with the Russian Empire since incorporation in , integrated in as the Vistula Land.
Main article: Namiestnik of the Kingdom of Poland. Main article: Administrative Council. Main article: Administrative division of Congress Poland.