What is a dynasty in chinese history

what is a dynasty in chinese history

Qin Dynasty

81 rows · Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From the inauguration of dynastic rule by Yu the Great in circa BC to the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor on 12 February in the wake of the Xinhai Revolution, China was ruled by a series of successive dynasties. 15 rows · Jul 31,  · The dynasty was highly hierarchical with King Shang at the top. Zhou Dynasty ( BC BC) Author: John Misachi.

Dynasties in Chinese historyor Chinese dynastieswere hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history.

From the inauguration of dynastic rule by Yu the Great in circa BC to the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor on 12 February in the wake of the Xinhai RevolutionChina was ruled by a series of successive dynasties. Dividing Chinese history into periods ruled by dynasties is a common method of periodization utilized by scholars. The longest-reigning orthodox dynasty of China was the Zhou dynastyruling for a total length of years, albeit it is divided into the Western Zhou and the Eastern Zhou in Chinese historiographyand its power was drastically reduced during the latter part of its rule.

Politically, the word is taken to refer to the regime of the incumbent ruler. The following is a list of terms associated with the concept of dynasty in Chinese historiography:. As the what is a dynasty in chinese history of China's debated first dynasty, the Xia dynastyYu the Great is conventionally regarded as the inaugurator of dynastic rule in China.

The rise and fall of dynasties is a prominent feature of Cynasty history. Some scholars have attempted to explain this phenomenon by attributing the success and failure of dynasties to the morality of the rulers, while others have focused on the tangible aspects of monarchical rule.

One might incorrectly infer from viewing historical timelines that transitions between dynasties occurred abruptly and roughly. Rather, new dynasties were often established before the complete overthrow of an existing regime. Similarly, during the earlier Sui—Tang transitionnumerous regimes established by rebel forces vied for control and legitimacy as the power of the ruling Sui dynasty weakened.

The Tang dynasty ls superseded the Sui launched a decade-long military campaign to reunify China proper. The latter cynasty as a means for the reigning dynasty to claim legitimate succession from earlier dynasties. According to Chinese historiographical tradition, each new dynasty would compose the history of the preceding dynasty, culminating in the Twenty-Four Histories. However, the attempt by the Republicans to draft the history of the Qing was disrupted by the Chinese Civil Warwhich resulted in the political division of China into the People's Republic of China on mainland China and the Republic of China on Taiwan.

During the Xinhai Revolution, there were numerous proposals advocating for the replacement of the Manchu -led Iis dynasty by a new dynasty of Han ethnicity. Dynastic rule in China lasted almost four ydnasty. China was politically divided during multiple periods in its history, with different regions ruled by different dynasties. These dynasties effectively functioned as separate states with their own court and political institutions.

Relations between Chinese dynasties during periods of division often revolved around political legitimacywhich was derived from the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven. On the other hand, many dynasties of non-Han origin saw themselves as the legitimate dynasty of China and often hitsory to portray themselves as the true inheritor of Chinese culture and history.

While periods of disunity often resulted in heated debates among officials and historians chinede which dynasty could and should be considered orthodox, the Northern Song statesman Ouyang Xiu propounded that such orthodoxy chinnese in a state of limbo during fragmented periods and was restored after political unification was achieved. Similarly, Ouyang considered the concept of orthodoxy to be in oblivion during the Three Kingdoms, the Sixteen Kingdoms, and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods.

As most Chinese historiographical sources uphold the idea of unilineal dynastic succession, only one dynasty could be considered orthodox at any given time. These historical legitimacy disputes are similar to the modern competing claims of legitimacy by the People's Republic of China based in Beijing and the Republic of China based in Taipei.

Both regimes formally adhere to the One-China policy and claim to be the sole legitimate representative of the whole of China. There were several groups chinesf Chinese dynasties that were ruled by families with patrilineal relationsyet due to various reasons these regimes are considered to be separate dynasties and given distinct retroactive names for historiographical purpose.

Such conditions as differences in their official dynastic title and fundamental changes having occurred to their rule would create the need for nomenclatural distinction, how to bleed brakes on truck these dynasties sharing common ancestral origins.

Additionally, numerous other dynasties claimed descent from earlier dynasties as a calculated political move to obtain or enhance their legitimacy, even if such claims were unfounded.

The agnatic relations of the following groups of Chinese dynasties are typically recognized what is a dynasty in chinese history historians:. The Central Plain is a vast area how to dress well clowne towne the lower reaches of how to do smokey eye makeup Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.

There were instances whereby the official name was changed during the reign of a dynasty. For example, the dynasty known retroactively as Southern Han initially used hidtory name "Yue", only to be renamed to "Han" subsequently. In Yongzhuang Xiaopin by the Ming historian Whaf Guozhenit was claimed that the first dynasty to do so was the Yuan dynasty. In Chinese historiography, historians generally do not refer to dynasties directly by their official name. Instead, historiographical names, which were most commonly derived from their official name, are used.

For instance, the Sui dynasty is known as such because its formal name was "Sui". Likewise, the Jin dynasty was officially the "Great Jin". When more than one dynasty shared the same Chinese chineese s as their formal name, as was common in Chinese history, prefixes are retroactively applied to dynastic names by historians in order to distinguish between these similarly-named regimes.

A dynasty could be referred to by more than one retroactive name in Chinese historiography, albeit some are more widely used than others. Scholars usually make a historiographical distinction for dynasties whose rule were interrupted. For example, the Song dynasty is divided into the Northern Song and the Southern Songwith the Jingkang Incident as the dividing line; the original "Song" founded by the Emperor Taizu of Song was therefore differentiated from the "Song" restored under the Emperor Gaozong of Song.

Major exceptions to this historiographical practice include the Western Qin and the Tang chineesewhich were interrupted wwe smackdown vs raw 2011 how to unlock layla the Later Qin and the Wu Zhou respectively. Such a practice is sometimes adopted in English usage, even though the inclusion of the word "dynasty" is also widely seen in English scholarly writings.

For example, the Northern Zhou is also how to design a cross stitch sampler referred to as the "Northern Zhou dynasty".

Often, scholars would refer to a specific Chinese dynasty by adding the word "China" after the dynastic name. For instance, "Tang China" refers to the Chinese state under the rule of the Tang dynasty and the corresponding historical era. While the earliest Chinese dynasties were established along the Yellow River and the Yangtze River in China proper, what is a dynasty in chinese history Chinese dynasties later expanded beyond the region to encompass other territorial domains.

At various points in time, Chinese dynasties exercised control over China proper including HainanMacauand Hong Kong[] [] [] Taiwan[] Manchuria both Inner Manchuria and Outer Manchuria[] [] Sakhalin[] [] Mongolia both Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia[] [] Vietnam[] [] Tibet[] [] Xinjiang[] as well as parts of Central Asia[] [] the Korean Peninsula[] Afghanistan[] [] and Siberia.

Territorially, the largest orthodox Chinese dynasty was either the Yuan dynasty chinesr the Qing dynastydepending on what is a dynasty in chinese history historical source.

Apart from exerting direct control over the Chinese realm, various dynasties of China also maintained hegemony over other states and tribes through the Chinese tributary system. The modern territorial claims of both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China are inherited from the lands once held by the Qing dynasty at the time of its collapse.

Whatt list includes only the major dynasties of China that are typically found in simplified forms of Chinese historical timelines. This what country code is 39 is neither comprehensive nor representative of Chinese history as a whole. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hereditary monarchical regimes in historical China. History of China. Related articles.

Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history Women in ancient and imperial China.

The Emperor Guangwu of Han top and the Emperor Zhaolie of Shu Han bottom were members of the same family but are considered to be chinesee of two separate dynasties. Main article: Conquest dynasty. For the general concept of the Chinese monarchy, see Monarchy of China. Legend Dynasties of relatively great significance. Major time periods. Dynasties counted among the "Three Kingdoms". Dynasties what is a dynasty in chinese history among the "Sixteen Kingdoms" [ac].

Dynasties counted among the "Northern dynasties" within the broader " Northern and Southern dynasties ". Dynasties counted among the "Southern dynasties" within the broader "Northern and Southern dynasties". Criteria for inclusion This list includes only the major dynasties of China that what is a dynasty in chinese history typically found in simplified forms of Chinese historical timelines.

There were many other dynastic regimes that existed within or overlapped with the boundaries defined in the scope of Chinese historical geography. Further information: Timeline of Chinese history. Spring and Autumn. Warring States. Gistory Dynasties. Legend Protodynastic rulers.

Dynastic regimes [bu]. Non-dynastic regimes. China portal History portal Monarchy portal. Hence, the chinesse of the Xuantong Emperor in AD is typically regarded as the formal end of the Chinese what does engine and gearbox warranty cover. A dynasty may be known by more than one historiographical name.

Some scholarly works utilize the Wade—Giles system, which may differ drastically in the spelling of certain words. Some characters may have simplified versions that are currently used in mainland China. For instance, since all monarchs of the Chen dynasty held the title of emperor during their reign, the Chen dynasty was of imperial status.

However, it was common for Chinese monarchs to posthumously honor earlier members of the family as monarchs. Chinese historiography does not make a distinction between the realm that existed prior to the interregnum and the restored realm. Xiang was the last ruler before the interregnum; Shao Kang was the first ruler after the interregnum.

Chinese historiography does not make a distinction between the realm that existed up to AD and the realm restored in AD The Prince Wuyuan of Western Qin was both the last ruler before the interregnum and the first ruler after the interregnum. The enthronement of the Prince Wuxuan of Northern Liang was therefore not a typical dynastic succession. The Emperor Ruizong of Tang was the last ruler before the interregnum; the Emperor Zhongzong of Tang was the first ruler after the interregnum.

What is a dynasty in chinese history Hebei Academic Journal. Retrieved what is a dynasty in chinese history August Retrieved 21 August Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. China: A History. The Cambridge History of China. Chinese Language Education in the United States.

Subcategories

Jan 13,  · The Qin Dynasty established the first empire in China, starting with efforts in B.C., during which the Qin leaders engulfed six Zhou Dynasty . Pages in category "Dynasties in Chinese history" The following 86 pages are in this category, out of 86 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (). Oct 10,  · The Xia dynasty of China (from c. to c. BC) is the first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records such as Sima Qian 's Records of the Grand Historian and Bamboo Annals. The dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as BC, from the Shang dynasty c. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang.

With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization. The Zhou dynasty — BC supplanted the Shang, and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period.

These states became independent and fought with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture , literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times. In BC, Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or " emperor " of the Qin , marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty BC — AD.

Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from BC until AD , routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials.

Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing — , which was replaced by the Republic of China in , and then in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in The Republic of China retreated to Taiwan in Hong Kong and Macau transferred sovereignty to China in and Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood —the most recent being the Chinese Civil War — China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population.

Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet , as at present.

Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation , expansion, and foreign contact , form the basis of the modern culture of China. What is now China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than a million years ago. The Neolithic age in China can be traced back to about 10, BC. At Damaidi in Ningxia, 3, cliff carvings dating to — BC have been discovered, "featuring 8, individual characters such as the sun, moon, stars, gods and scenes of hunting or grazing".

Some scholars have suggested that Jiahu symbols 7th millennium BC were the earliest Chinese writing system. Bronze artifacts have been found at the Majiayao culture site between and BC. Sanxingdui located in what is now Sichuan province is believed to be the site of a major ancient city, of a previously unknown Bronze Age culture between and BC.

The site was first discovered in and then re-discovered in Chinese archaeologists have identified the Sanxingdui culture to be part of the ancient kingdom of Shu , linking the artifacts found at the site to its early legendary kings. Ferrous metallurgy begins to appear in the late 6th century in the Yangzi Valley. For this reason, authors such as Liana Chua and Mark Elliott have used the term "Iron Age" by convention for the transitional period of c.

The Xia dynasty of China from c. Early markings from this period found on pottery and shells are thought to be ancestral to modern Chinese characters. According to ancient records, the dynasty ended around BC as a consequence of the Battle of Mingtiao. Archaeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the Shang dynasty , c.

The first set, from the earlier Shang period, comes from sources at Erligang , Zhengzhou , and Shangcheng. A series of thirty-one kings reigned over the Shang dynasty. During their reign, according to the Records of the Grand Historian , the capital city was moved six times. Chinese historians in later periods were accustomed to the notion of one dynasty succeeding another, but the political situation in early China was much more complicated.

Hence, as some scholars of China suggest, the Xia and the Shang can refer to political entities that existed concurrently, just as the early Zhou existed at the same time as the Shang.

Although written records found at Anyang confirm the existence of the Shang dynasty, [33] Western scholars are often hesitant to associate settlements that are contemporaneous with the Anyang settlement with the Shang dynasty. For example, archaeological findings at Sanxingdui suggest a technologically advanced civilization culturally unlike Anyang. The evidence is inconclusive in proving how far the Shang realm extended from Anyang.

The leading hypothesis is that Anyang, ruled by the same Shang in the official history, coexisted and traded with numerous other culturally diverse settlements in the area that is now referred to as China proper.

By the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Zhou dynasty began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the territory of the Shang.

The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system. The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that was influential for almost every succeeding dynasty. In response, the royal house would be overthrown, and a new house would rule, having been granted the Mandate of Heaven.

The Zhou initially moved their capital west to an area near modern Xi'an , on the Wei River , a tributary of the Yellow River, but they would preside over a series of expansions into the Yangtze River valley. This would be the first of many population migrations from north to south in Chinese history. In the 8th century BC, power became decentralized during the Spring and Autumn period , named after the influential Spring and Autumn Annals. In this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power and vie for hegemony.

The situation was aggravated by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Qin , forcing the Zhou to move their capital east to Luoyang. This marks the second major phase of the Zhou dynasty: the Eastern Zhou. The Spring and Autumn period is marked by a falling apart of the central Zhou power. In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhou kings in name only.

Some local leaders even started using royal titles for themselves. China now consisted of hundreds of states, some of them only as large as a village with a fort. As the era continued, larger and more powerful states annexed or claimed suzerainty over smaller ones. By the 6th century BC most small states had disappeared by being annexed and just a few large and powerful principalities dominated China. Some southern states, such as Chu and Wu, claimed independence from the Zhou, who undertook wars against some of them Wu and Yue.

Many new cities were established in this period and Chinese culture was slowly shaped. Many famous individuals such as Laozi , Confucius and Sun Tzu lived during this chaotic period. The Hundred Schools of Thought of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism , Taoism , Legalism and Mohism were founded, partly in response to the changing political world.

The first two philosophical thoughts would have an enormous influence on Chinese culture. After further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of the 5th century BC, and the years in which these few states battled each other are known as the Warring States period.

Though there remained a nominal Zhou king until BC, he was largely a figurehead and held little real power. Numerous developments were made during this period in culture and mathematics. Examples include an important literary achievement, the Zuo zhuan on the Spring and Autumn Annals , which summarizes the preceding Spring and Autumn period, and the bundle of 21 bamboo slips from the Tsinghua collection, which was invented during this period dated to BC, are the world's earliest example of a two digit decimal multiplication table , indicating that sophisticated commercial arithmetic was already established during this period.

As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern Sichuan and Liaoning , were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of commandery and prefecture. This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn period, and parts can still be seen in the modern system of Sheng and Xian province and county. The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng , the king of Qin. His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of Zhejiang , Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi in BC, enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor Qin Shi Huang.

Major events in the Early sub-period include the Qin unification of China and their replacement by the Han, the First Split followed by the Jin unification, and the loss of north China. The Middle sub-period was marked by the Sui unification and their supplementation by the Tang, the Second Split, and the Song unification.

The Late sub-period included the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. Historians often refer to the period from the Qin dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty as Imperial China. Though the unified reign of the First Qin Emperor lasted only 12 years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland and to unite them under a tightly centralized Legalist government seated at Xianyang close to modern Xi'an.

The doctrine of Legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor. This philosophy, while effective for expanding the empire in a military fashion, proved unworkable for governing it in peacetime.

The Qin Emperor presided over the brutal silencing of political opposition, including the event known as the burning of books and burying of scholars. This would be the impetus behind the later Han synthesis incorporating the more moderate schools of political governance. Major contributions of the Qin include the concept of a centralized government, and the unification and development of the legal code, the written language, measurement, and currency of China after the tribulations of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods.

Even something as basic as the length of axles for carts—which need to match ruts in the roads—had to be made uniform to ensure a viable trading system throughout the empire.

Also as part of its centralization, the Qin connected the northern border walls of the states it defeated, making the first, though rough, version of the Great Wall of China. The tribes of the north, collectively called the Wu Hu by the Qin, were free from Chinese rule during the majority of the dynasty.

After a military campaign led by General Meng Tian , the region was conquered in BC and agriculture was established; the peasants, however, were discontented and later revolted. The succeeding Han dynasty also expanded into the Ordos due to overpopulation, but depleted their resources in the process. Indeed, this was true of the dynasty's borders in multiple directions; modern Inner Mongolia , Xinjiang , Tibet , Manchuria , and regions to the southeast were foreign to the Qin, and even areas over which they had military control were culturally distinct.

After Emperor Qin Shi Huang's unnatural death due to the consumption of mercury pills, [39] the Qin government drastically deteriorated and eventually capitulated in BC after the Qin capital was captured and sacked by rebels, which would ultimately lead to the establishment of a new dynasty of a unified China.

A golden age in Chinese history, the Han dynasty's long period of stability and prosperity consolidated the foundation of China as a unified state under a central imperial bureaucracy, which was to last intermittently for most of the next two millennia. During the Han dynasty, territory of China was extended to most of the China proper and to areas far west. Confucianism was officially elevated to orthodox status and was to shape the subsequent Chinese civilization.

Art, culture and science all advanced to unprecedented heights. With the profound and lasting impacts of this period of Chinese history, the dynasty name "Han" had been taken as the name of the Chinese people, now the dominant ethnic group in modern China, and had been commonly used to refer to Chinese language and written characters.

The Han dynasty also saw many mathematical innovations being invented such as the method of Gaussian elimination which appeared in the Chinese mathematical text Chapter Eight Rectangular Arrays of The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art. Its use is illustrated in eighteen problems, with two to five equations. The first reference to the book by this title is dated to AD, but parts of it were written as early as approximately BC, more than years before a European came up with the method in the 18th century.

After the initial laissez-faire policies of Emperors Wen and Jing , the ambitious Emperor Wu brought the empire to its zenith. To consolidate his power, Confucianism, which emphasizes stability and order in a well-structured society, was given exclusive patronage to be the guiding philosophical thoughts and moral principles of the empire.

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